Ubuntu20.04 VNC 安装与设置实现

VNC是一个远程桌面协议。按照本文的说明进行操作可以实现用VNC对Ubuntu 20.04进行远程控制。一般的VNC安装方式在主机没有插显示器的时候是无法使用的。下面的操作可以在主机有显示器和没有显示器时都能够正常工作。

首先安装x11vnc

sudo apt-get install x11vnc -y

设置vnc密码

sudo x11vnc -storepasswd /etc/x11vnc.pass 

创建x11vnc自启动服务

创建 /etc/systemd/system/x11vnc.service,并写入以下内容

[Unit]
Description=Start x11vnc at startup.
After=multi-user.target
[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/bin/x11vnc -auth /run/user/1000/gdm/Xauthority -forever -loop -noxdamage -repeat -rfbauth /etc/x11vnc.pass -rfbport 5900 -shared
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

启动x11vnc服务

sudo systemctl enable x11vnc
sudo service x11vnc start

此时如果远程的主机上接了显示器,那么就可以在局域网通过VNC进行访问了。

为了能够保证远程主机无论是否有显示器,我们都能通过VNC进行远程访问,我们还要做下面的修改

创建默认的xorg.conf文件

sudo Xorg :1 -configure

此时程序会生成 /root/xorg.conf.new文件

我的默认文件内容如下

Section "ServerLayout"
 Identifier   "X.org Configured"
 Screen   0 "Screen0" 0 0
 InputDevice  "Mouse0" "CorePointer"
 InputDevice  "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
EndSection

Section "Files"
 ModulePath  "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/misc"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/cyrillic"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi/:unscaled"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi/:unscaled"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi"
 FontPath   "/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi"
 FontPath   "built-ins"
EndSection

Section "Module"
 Load "glx"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Keyboard0"
 Driver   "kbd"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
 Identifier "Mouse0"
 Driver   "mouse"
 Option   "Protocol" "auto"
 Option   "Device" "/dev/input/mice"
 Option   "ZAxisMapping" "4 5 6 7"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
 Identifier  "Monitor0"
 VendorName  "Monitor Vendor"
 ModelName  "Monitor Model"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    ### Available Driver options are:-
    ### Values: <i>: integer, <f>: float, <bool>: "True"/"False",
    ### <string>: "String", <freq>: "<f> Hz/kHz/MHz",
    ### <percent>: "<f>%"
    ### [arg]: arg optional
    #Option   "Accel"        # [<bool>]
    #Option   "AccelMethod"     # <str>
    #Option   "Backlight"      # <str>
    #Option   "CustomEDID"     # <str>
    #Option   "DRI"         # <str>
    #Option   "Present"       # [<bool>]
    #Option   "ColorKey"      # <i>
    #Option   "VideoKey"      # <i>
    #Option   "Tiling"       # [<bool>]
    #Option   "LinearFramebuffer"  # [<bool>]
    #Option   "HWRotation"     # [<bool>]
    #Option   "VSync"        # [<bool>]
    #Option   "PageFlip"      # [<bool>]
    #Option   "SwapbuffersWait"   # [<bool>]
    #Option   "TripleBuffer"    # [<bool>]
    #Option   "XvPreferOverlay"   # [<bool>]
    #Option   "HotPlug"       # [<bool>]
    #Option   "ReprobeOutputs"   # [<bool>]
    #Option   "XvMC"        # [<bool>]
    #Option   "ZaphodHeads"     # <str>
    #Option   "VirtualHeads"    # <i>
    #Option   "TearFree"      # [<bool>]
    #Option   "PerCrtcPixmaps"   # [<bool>]
    #Option   "FallbackDebug"    # [<bool>]
    #Option   "DebugFlushBatches"  # [<bool>]
    #Option   "DebugFlushCaches"  # [<bool>]
    #Option   "DebugWait"      # [<bool>]
    #Option   "BufferCache"     # [<bool>]
 Identifier "Card0"
 Driver   "intel"
 BusID    "PCI:0:2:0"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
 Identifier "Screen0"
 Device   "Card0"
 Monitor  "Monitor0"
 SubSection "Display"
 Viewport  0 0
 Depth   1
 EndSubSection
 SubSection "Display"
 Viewport  0 0
 Depth   4
 EndSubSection
 SubSection "Display"
 Viewport  0 0
 Depth   8
 EndSubSection
 SubSection "Display"
 Viewport  0 0
 Depth   15
 EndSubSection
 SubSection "Display"
 Viewport  0 0
 Depth   16
 EndSubSection
 SubSection "Display"
 Viewport  0 0
 Depth   24
 EndSubSection
EndSection

将此文件复制至 /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/xorg.conf

这个文件保证在主机上插有显示器的时候,系统界面能在显示器上正常显示。下面我们再给系统添加一个虚拟显示器,当主机没有显示器的时候系统就使用这个虚拟显示器。

Ubuntu20.04 VNC 安装与设置实现

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